SOFT TISSUE (INCLUDING FLESH) FOUND IN FOSSILS
making recent presentations, I have been receiving more and more questions
about whether or not we have found any more soft tissue or flesh in fossils
since Dr. Mary Schweitzer found Tyrannosaurus rex red blood cells in
1992 and T. rex flesh in 2005.
such findings were made long before Dr. Schweitzers famous discoveries
in Montana, and they are continuing to be found at a faster and faster rate as
paleontologists start to actively look for them. Of course, evolutionary
paleontologists had never really actively looked for soft tissues before, or at
least if they found them they never published them, because they believed that,
according to their theory, no such remains could possibly be found.
same may be said for trying to date dinosaur fossils using Carbon-14. We
cannot measure Carbon-14 beyond a supposed 103,000 years. Since evolutionary
believing scientists know that dinosaur bones are too old (65 million or more
years) for Carbon-14 to exist in fossil remains, they had never bothered to
test for Carbon-14 in dinosaur bones - they didnt want to spend the money for
a test that they knew would find nothing.
is why you cannot get the truth from evolutionary consensus scientists. They
do not look for what they believe does not exist. Real scientists look for
what has not yet been discovered and then publish the results in order to
increase the total body of knowledge and thereby benefit everyone.
tissues have been found in numerous dinosaur and other creatures fossils, and
many of these tissue specimens have been found to contain measurable
radiocarbon, Carbon-14. These Carbon-14 tests have yielded dates of only
18,000 to 50,000 thousands of years old. But, according to evolutionists,
the rocks that these fossils were found in are millions of years old.
hostility has been directed by evolutionists toward their fellow evolutionists
who dared to publish these legitimate findings. In 2006, after Dr. Mary
Schweitzer published her findings of flesh in a reputedly 68 million year old T.
rex, Discovery Magazine published an article that demonstrates the
typical evolutionary response:
most likely source of these proteins is the once-living cells of the dinosaur,
she [Schweitzer] wrote in a 1997 paper...That article, published in Proceedings
of the National Academy of Sciences [Schweitzer et al., 1997], sparked a small
flurry of headlines... Opponents say, I just dont believe it. She was having
a hard time publishing in journals.
Bada, an organic geochemist at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography in San
Diego, cannot imagine soft tissue surviving millions of years. He says the
cellular material Schweitzer found must be contamination from outside sources
... radiation would have degraded its body. Bada says: Bones absorb uranium
and thorium like crazy. Youve got an internal dose that will wipe out
[Schweitzer] acknowledged that one reviewer told her, he didnt care what
the data said: he knew that what I was finding wasnt possible. I wrote back
and said, Well, what data would convince you? And he said, None. [Emphasis added]
B. 2006. Schweitzers dangerous discovery. Discover, April 27, 2006.)
biochemicals and soft tissue be found in reputedly millions of year old
remains? Yes, they can! Unmistakable evidence of proteins such as
collagen and hemoglobin, along with red blood cells and bone cells, have been
found in dinosaur remains and in other fossil organisms. Yet, these molecules
and structures could not possibly have lasted for even one million supposed
years under even the best of preservation conditions. Bone collagen held at a
steady annual temperature of 100 C will completely disintegrate
under the best possible preservation conditions after only 300,000 to 900,000
M., and M.J. Collins. 2011. Collagen survival and its use for species
identification in Holocene-Lower Pleistocene bone fragments from British
archaeological and paleontological sites. Antiqua 1:e1.)
2015, a team of biomedical and geological scientists found 10 proteins,
including myosin, actin, tubulin, histone H2A and tropomyosin, in a fossil
hadrosaurid, a duck-billed dinosaur supposedly 80 million years old.
(Cleland, T. P. et al. 2015. Mass Spectrometry and
Antibody-Based Characterization of Blood Vessels from Brachylophosaurus
canadensis. Journal of Proteome Research. 14 (12):5252-5262.
2007, Michael Collins and his colleagues found Moa DNA found in New Zealand and
using rigorous investigation of 158 fossil specimens determined that the
half-life of the DNA was only 521 years. The half-life is probably much shorter
as their method of dating used evolutionary assumptions and the disproven
Carbon 14 dating technique. With these factors in mind then, the decay of DNA
would be even faster. Regardless, whether we use the 521 years or less, clearly
DNA cannot exist in fossils reputedly multi-million years old.
reports of DNA from dinosaur fossils and other remains of even older
materials continue to be reported, although seldom published because of the
secular biases in the scientific journals. After all, why would an
evolutionary believing scientist search for, much less publish, something that
would only threaten their careers? Could this be the reason that in her article
on finding soft osteocytes (bone cells) Schweitzer (2013) and her team noted
finding chemical signatures matching DNA in a supposedly 65 to 145 million
year old Cretaceous T. rex fossil bone, rather than actually sequencing
One is reminded that all secular experiments trying
to prove that life could form by abiogenesis - rocks/chemicals becoming alive
by random chance - have utterly failed. Dr. Stanley Miller tried from his time
as a doctoral student under Dr. Harold Urey in 1952 until his death in 2007 to
fine first a DNA and later an RNA method for abiogenesis and concluded that
it was impossible. In nature complicated biochemicals essential to life,
like proteins and nucleic acids, spontaneously break down into smaller and smaller
components, the converse of what would be needed in nature to form living
organisms by random chance. Science is against evolution happening.
steadfastly dogmatically believe by faith that such a mechanism did occur
in the past, but they do not have one shred of evidence to support it in the
present. Why? Because evolution is a religion not science.
Unfortunately, the public is for the most part unaware of this information.
Mary Schweitzer sequenced collagen protein found in a dinosaur fossil bone at
Hell Creek, Montana. Collagen is an essential component of bone, epithelial and
other tissues. It is not known to be made by microbes. Schweitzers team imaged
proteins specific to vertebrates. Specifically, she used a hadrosaur femur and
worked with an outside laboratory to confirm the findings. They found
collagen, elastin and laminin. (Schweitzer, 2009)
know that DNA, collagen, elastin, and laminin have been authenticated as
existing in fossil dinosaur remains as well as in other organisms supposedly
predating the dinosaur era on the evolutionary time scale.
about whole soft tissues found in supposedly ancient remains? We have been
finding them for years!
evolutionary time scale, the Cenozoic era is supposedly from 65 million years
ago to the present time. No recognizable proteins should exist in these layers.
Yet, one Siberian mammoth bone yielded 126 protein types. (Capelini et al.,
evolutionary time scale, the Mesozoic era is supposedly 250 to 65 million years
ago. No soft tissues should exist in these layers, but they have yielded the
largest number of soft tissue fossil finds.
1966 issue of the evolutionary journal Nature electron micrographs of
dinosaur tissues were published. (Pawlicki et al., 1966) In 2008, using the
same technique, another team of paleontologists imaged dinosaur collagen
fiber bundles from a Psittacosaurus found in China. (Lingham-Soliar,
South Africa, a researcher found and published original color skin pigments
from a different Chinese Psittacosaurus. The pigments included
carotenoids and melanins. (Lingham-Soliar and Plodowski, 2010). Again, in 2010,
a fossil mosasaur found in Kansas was found to contain decaying skin and red
blood cells with original red hemoglobin. (Lindgren et al., 2010).
In 2013, Chinese researchers found protein inside a bone
from a fossil Lugengosaurus embryo. The fossil was assigned to the
Jurassic era by evolutionists, supposedly 200 to 145 million years old. (Reisz
et al., 2013). A fossil Tarbosaurus bataar fossil bone was found in the
Gobi Desert in 1998 by Polish researcher Roman Pawlicki. He published excellent
micrographs of the bone tissues. (Pawlicki and Wowogrodzha-Zagorske, 1998, p.
report stated that the descriptions of the vascular canals in dinosaur bones
and the bones of modern reptiles is the same. This is simply another in a
long line of serious challenges to evolutionary beliefs.
2001, Mark Armitage found and verified fresh-looking tissues in a T. rex
bone. (Scanning electron microscope study of mummified collagen fibers
in fossil Tyrannosaurus rex bone. Creation Research Society Quarterly
38:61-66.) In 2003, another team
sequenced some non-collagen protein fragments from an Iguanodon bone
that was in the collection of the Natural History Museum of London. (Embery, et
al. 2003. Identification of Proteinaceous material in the bone of the dinosaur Iguanodon.
Connective Tissue Research 44(suppl. 1): 41-46.)
to Dr. Mary Schweitzers initial finding of T. rex non-fossilized
tissues, amino acids had been found in the bone of a Seismosaurus
from New Mexico. (Gurley, et al. 1991. Proteins in the fossil bone of the
dinosaur, Seismosaurus. Journal of Protein Chemistry 10:75-90.)
Yet amino acids were found in fossil shells during research going all the way
back to 1970. This research was published in the most prestigious Proceedings
of the National Academy of Sciences by Akiyama, M. et al. (67:1097-1100.)
in 1980 Ralph Wyckoff wrote in Biochemistry of Amino Acids (p. 19) that
work with dinosaur remains demonstrated that enough protein for analysis could
often be recovered from bones and teeth as old as the Jurassic. According to
the evolutionary dating scale that would be between 208 to 144 million supposed
years ago. Yet, it is impossible for biological materials to exist for that
must remember, too, that during the Flood of Noah the water coming up from
below was in the area of between 4000 F and 9000 F. This
hot water would have caused far faster biochemical decay in sedimentary layers
than todays climate would indicate. Thus, when we factor in a biblical
approach to the analysis of non-fossilized biological tissues we can easily see
how they could be interpreted as being only 4,500 years old.
heat of the waters of Noahs Flood would also have cooked biological
materials into carbonaceous residues. This is exactly what we find in the
world famous Burgess Shale fossil beds in the Canadian Rockies of British
Columbia. These fossil beds are dated by evolutionists as Cambrian
(supposedly 508 million years old). We find heat altered biochemicals in these
deposits that indicates that the mud which buried the millions of now fossil
organisms found there was very hot. These findings do not agree with the very
slow and gradual cool processes indicative of the various evolutionary
In 2014, the
current record holder for the oldest known original tissue found in fossil
materials was found in a Siberian drill core sample of Ediacaran strata,
supposedly 635 to 542 million years old on the evolutionary time scale.
(Moczydlowska et al., 2014) The core contained still flexible, proteinaceous
remains of marine tube worms. The worm casings were not mineralized and the
material was virtually identical to living marine tube worms. These structural
chitin polysacchrides could not possibly survive a period of over 500 million years
without total molecular breakdown.
al., Journal of Paleontology 88:224-239. 2014)
One of the most
interesting recent finds of soft tissue inside of fossil bone was made by Mark
Armitage on May 12, 2012. Soft fibrillar bone tissue was discovered inside
the fossil brow horn of a Triceratops horridus. The fossil horn was
found in the famous Hell Creek Formation near Glendive, Montana. This is a
world famous area for finding fossil dinosaur remains.
The soft material
was present in pre- and post-decalcified bone. (Mori, H., et al.,
A new Arctic hadrosaurid from the Prince Creek Formation (lower Maastrichtian)
of northern Alaska, Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 2015. The horn contained several small sheets of lamellar bone
matrix that had become part of the solid bone horn. Observed within the matrix were visible bone cells (osteocytes). There
were even multiple layers of intact bone cells including elegant filipodial
interconnections and obvious secondary branching. Two specific kinds of bone
cells were discovered. There was no sign of permineralization in the tissues.
2015, scientists from the University of Alaska uncovered a new
species of hadrosaur (duck-billed dinosaur) in the Liscomb bone bed, Prince
Creek formation, on the North Slope. The formation is dated by evolutionists as
supposedly 69 million years old. Astonishingly, the researchers admitted that
the bones were unpermineralized, meaning that the bones were basically
fresh bones. Amazingly, (of course) the reports in the liberal media fail
to mention the freshness of the bones. If the evolutionary dating were
correct, these bones could not possibly be unfossilized for 69 million years.
(Mori, H., et al.,
A new Arctic hadrosaurid from the Prince Creek Formation (lower Maastrichtian)
of northern Alaska, Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 2015.
Again, in 2015, in
a limestone quarry in Spain, a small rat-like mammal fossil was found. Why is
this important? The fossil had well-preserved internal organs. Yet
according to evolutionists the fossil was 125 million years old. According to
the report on the find it pushed back the record for well-preserved organs, fur
and skin by more than 60 million years. More importantly, the organs were
exactly the same as mammals alive today. This poses a serious problem for evolutionists
and their beloved time-lines.
In opposition to
the prediction of Charles Darwin, that no entirely soft tissue organism could
be fossilized, we have found hundreds of fossil squids and jellyfish. These
fossils are claimed to be up to 505 million years old. Remarkably, inside a few
of the fossil squid we have been able to recover usable ink from their ink
sacs. While the ink is not the same as material from living cells, it is
the product of living cells. It should be impossible to reconstitute and use
the ink if it really were as old as evolutionists claim.
Last, but hardly
least and equally important, we have found radioactive Carbon 14 inside
dinosaur and dinosaur era fossils. This should be impossible as Carbon 14
residues supposedly cannot be measured beyond 103,000 years old. In addition,
for Carbon 14 to be found in fossils requires that organic, soft tissues, be
present in the specimen.
In 2011, a fossil
fish from the Green River Formation in Wyoming, and claimed to be 49 to 50
million years old, was radiocarbon dated as 26,110 years old. At the
same time, a fossil paddle fish was removed from the same Formation, and yet it
was radiocarbon dated as 33,530 years old.
found on Axel Heiberg Island in 1986, and claimed to be Eocene (34 to 56
million years old) was radiocarbon dated as 39,720 old.
fossil bones from the Hell Creek Formation and neighboring Lance Formation,
supposedly 66 to 100 million years old have been radiocarbon dated as
20,850, 25,550 and 32,420 years old. The Triceratops horn bone mentioned previously
was also radiocarbon dated with a result of 33,570 years old. Finally, a fossil
lizard was found in Permian strata (252 to 298 million supposed years old) but
radiocarbon dated as 49,470 years old.
evolutionary time frames are utterly false!